You're viewing version 1.2.0 of read. The latest stable version of Clojure Core is 1.3.0.
1.2.0 Arrow_down_16x16
  • (read)
  • (read stream)
  • (read stream eof-error? eof-value)
  • (read stream eof-error? eof-value recursive?)
Reads the next object from stream, which must be an instance of or some derivee. stream defaults to the
current value of *in* .

2 Examples top

  • user=> (read)
    ( + 1 1 ) ; <= User types this
    (+ 1 1)
    user=> (eval (read))
    (+ 1 1)   ; <= User types this
  • ;; WARNING: You SHOULD NOT use clojure.core/read or
    ;; clojure.core/read-string to read data from untrusted sources.  They
    ;; were designed only for reading Clojure code and data from trusted
    ;; sources (e.g. files that you know you wrote yourself, and no one
    ;; else has permission to modify them).
    ;; Instead, either:
    ;; (1) Use another data serialization format such as JSON, XML,
    ;; etc. and a library for reading them that you trust not to have
    ;; vulnerabilities, or
    ;; (2) if you want a serialization format that can be read safely and
    ;; looks like Clojure data structures, use edn
    ;; (  For Clojure 1.3 and later,
    ;; the tools.reader contrib library provides an edn reader
    ;; (  There is also
    ;; clojure.edn/read and clojure.edn/read-string provided in Clojure
    ;; 1.5.
    ;; You definitely should not use clojure.core/read or read-string if
    ;; *read-eval* has its default value of true, because an attacker
    ;; could cause your application to execute arbitrary code while it is
    ;; reading.  Example:
    user=> (read-string "#=( \"echo\" \"hi\")")
    {:exit 0, :out "hi\n", :err ""}
    ;; It is straightforward to modify the example above into more
    ;; destructive ones that remove all of your files, copy them to
    ;; someone else's computer over the Internet, install Trojans, etc.
    ;; Even if you do bind *read-eval* to false first, like so:
    (defn read-string-unsafely [s]
      (binding [*read-eval* false]
        (read-string s)))
    ;; you may hope you are safe reading untrusted data that way, but in
    ;; Clojure 1.4 and earlier, an attacker can send data that causes your
    ;; system to execute arbitrary Java constructors.  Most of these are
    ;; benign, but it only takes one to ruin your application's day.
    ;; Examples that should scare you:
    ;; This causes a socket to be opened, as long as the JVM sandboxing
    ;; allows it.
    (read-string-unsafely "[\"\" 80]")
    ;; This causes precious-file.txt to be created if it doesn't exist, or
    ;; if it does exist, its contents will be erased (given appropriate
    ;; JVM sandboxing permissions, and underlying OS file permissions).
    (read-string-unsafely "[\"precious-file.txt\"]")
    ;; The particular issue of executing arbitrary Java constructors used
    ;; in the examples above no longer works in Clojure 1.5 when
    ;; *read-eval* is false.  Even so, you SHOULD NEVER USE
    ;; clojure.core/read or clojure.core/read-string for reading untrusted
    ;; data.  Use an edn reader or a different data serialization format.
    ;; Why should I do this, you may ask, if Clojure 1.5 closes the Java
    ;; constructor hole?  Because clojure.core/read and read-string are
    ;; designed to be able to do dangerous things, and they are not
    ;; documented nor promised to be safe from unwanted side effects.  If
    ;; you use them for reading untrusted data, and a dangerous side
    ;; effect is found in the future, you will be told that you are using
    ;; the wrong tool for the job.  clojure.edn/read and read-string, and
    ;; the tools.reader.edn library, are documented to be safe from
    ;; unwanted side effects, and if any bug is found in this area it
    ;; should get quick attention and corrected.
    ;; If you understand all of the above, and want to use read or
    ;; read-string to read data from a _trusted_ source, continue on
    ;; below.
    ;; read wants its reader arg (or *in*) to be a
    ;; with-open closes r after the with-open body is done.  *read-eval*
    ;; specifies whether to allow #=() forms when reading, and evaluate
    ;; them as a side effect while reading.
    (defn read-from-file-with-trusted-contents [filename]
      (with-open [r (
                     ( filename))]
        (binding [*read-eval* false]
          (read r))))
    user=> (spit "testfile.txt" "{:a 1 :b 2 :c 3}")
    user=> (read-from-file-with-trusted-contents "testfile.txt")
    {:a 1, :b 2, :c 3}
Log in to add / edit an example.

See Also top

Log in to add a see also.

Plus_12x12 Minus_12x12 Source clojure/core.clj:2872 top

(defn read
  "Reads the next object from stream, which must be an instance of or some derivee.  stream defaults to the
  current value of *in* ."
  {:added "1.0"}
   (read *in*))
   (read stream true nil))
  ([stream eof-error? eof-value]
   (read stream eof-error? eof-value false))
  ([stream eof-error? eof-value recursive?]
   (. clojure.lang.LispReader (read stream (boolean eof-error?) eof-value recursive?))))
Vars in clojure.core/read: *in* boolean defn

Comments top

1 comment(s) for read.

This function is for reading clojure objects not a general input function.

Log in to add a comment.